Available on this page is the complete and unamended text of The Way of the Lord Jesus, volume one, Christian Moral Principles, published by Franciscan Herald Press in 1983. An account of how Germain Grisez came to write this book and the complete text of the first draft—written between 18 July 1979 and 21 April 1980, and very different from this published work—is available on this website (click here). A summary of this volume, presenting the same theology in an easier-to-read style, is also available on this website (click here).

The User's Guide and Preface includes a key to the references within the text and in the footnotes along with other information likely to be helpful to serious readers.

In this volume, the central topics are treated by formulating questions and answering them straightforwardly. Within the reply to each question, the main line of the response is in the numbered paragraphs, while secondary points are in unnumbered paragraphs and appear in slightly smaller type. Within the numbered paragraphs, the statements central to the response are in bold type. Most chapters also include appendices, in which interesting but nonessential matters are treated.

User’s Guide and Preface


Chapter 1: Introduction to Moral Theology and to This Book

Qu. A:  What is theology?
Qu. B:  What is moral theology?
Qu. C:  What is the role of the teaching of the Church in the method of moral theology?
Qu. D:  Why is renewal in moral theology necessary?
Qu. E:  What does Vatican II say about renewal in moral theology?
Qu. F:  What are the shortcomings of current efforts in moral theology?
Qu. G:  What fundamental problem underlies the unsatisfactory development of moral theology?
Qu. H:  How can a treatise on Christian moral principles provide a basis for the needed renewal in moral theology?
Qu. I:  What difficulties can be expected by those who study moral theology with this book?

Ap. 1:  The importance of this subject
Ap. 2:  Pluralism, theological synthesis, and the present work
Ap. 3:  Renewal in moral theology and the present crisis in the Church
Ap. 4:  Theological method and science
Ap. 5:  The appropriate method for theology: dialectic
Ap. 6:  Modern philosophies and theology

Chapter 2: Free Choice, Self-Determination, Community, and Character

Qu. A:  In what sense is free choice a principle of morality?
Qu. B:  Can human persons make free choices?
Qu. C:  How is free choice distinguished from other realities called “freedom”?
Qu. D:  How does a person experience free choice?
Qu. E:  What are the essence and the most important properties of free choice?
Qu. F:  In what ways can free choices be social or communal?
Qu. G:  How are an individual’s choices related to one another?
Qu. H:  How are choices constitutive of one’s self and of community?
Qu. I:  How are the virtues and vices which make up character related to free choices?

Ap. 1:  The Fathers of the Church on free choice
Ap. 2:  Further clarifications of the experience of choice
Ap. 3:  The compatibility of God’s causality with free choice
Ap. 4:  Only believers accept the reality of free choice

Chapter 3: Conscience: Knowledge of Moral Truth

Qu. A:  What are the different senses of the word “conscience”?
Qu. B:  What is conscience according to the teaching of the Church?
Qu. C:  What is one’s moral responsibility for errors of conscience?
Qu. D:  What is the ideal way to make a judgment of conscience?
Qu. E:  What is meant by “formation of conscience”?
Qu. F:  How can the Church’s teaching form conscience from within?
Qu. G:  How is conscience misunderstood in the modern world?

Ap. 1:  Three levels in the development of conscience
Ap. 2:  How conscience can make blameless mistakes
Ap. 3:  Failures of conscience through some fault

Chapter 4: Some Mistaken Theories of Moral Principles

Qu. A:  Are judgments of conscience mere expressions of moral feelings?
Qu. B:  Are judgments of conscience derivable from any general principle?
Qu. C:  Are moral norms in effect only if they are validated by personal choices?
Qu. D:  Are moral principles established by God’s arbitrary choice?
Qu. E:  Are moral principles the requirements for the functioning of particular societies?
Qu. F:  Are moral principles laws of human nature?
Qu. G:  How does the preceding critique of scholastic natural-law theory help to explain the inadequacy of classical moral theology?
Qu. H:  How do this chapter’s critical reflections contribute to a more adequate theory of moral principles?

Ap.:  Immanuel Kant’s theory of moral principles

Chapter 5: The Goods Which Fulfill Persons

Qu. A:  What is the central meaning of “good” and “bad”?
Qu. B:  How are sensible goods and bads distinct from intelligible goods and bads?
Qu. C:  How do mistaken views of the good and the bad lead to false accounts of what is good for human persons?
Qu. D:  What are the goods which fulfill human persons?
Qu. E:  What are the principal inadequate theories of the human good as a whole?
Qu. F:  What is St. Augustine’s theory of the human good as a whole?
Qu. G:  What does it mean to say without qualification that a person “is good”?
Qu. H:  How are existential and substantive goods related to one another?

Ap. 1:  Vatican II’s indication of the human goods
Ap. 2:  The reflexive or existential goods explained more fully
Ap. 3:  Substantive goods explained more fully
Ap. 4:  Bodily life a basic human good

Chapter 6: Critique of the Proportionalist Method of Moral Judgment

Qu. A:  What is the proportionalist method of moral judgment?
Qu. B:  What account of human goods does proportionalism presuppose?
Qu. C:  Why is proportionalism plausible?
Qu. D:  Why do these considerations, which render proportionalism plausible, fail to constitute sound arguments in its favor?
Qu. E:  Do practical experience and language provide evidence for proportionalism?
Qu. F:  Why is proportionalism unacceptable as a theory of moral judgment?
Qu. G:  How does proportionalism misconstrue the nature of morality?
Qu. H:  Do proportionalists respond successfully to criticism?

Ap.:  A restricted theory of proportionate reason

Chapter 7: Natural Law and the Fundamental Principles of Morality

Qu. A:  What does “natural law” mean in Catholic teaching?
Qu. B:  Are natural law and revelation completely separate sources of moral guidance?
Qu. C:  What is the first principle of practical reasoning?
Qu. D:  What are the general determinations of the first principle of practical reasoning?
Qu. E:  What is the function of the first principle of morality?
Qu. F:  How is the first principle of morality to be formulated?
Qu. G:  What are the primary specifications of the first principle of morality?
Qu. H:  How are the modes of responsibility related to the virtues?

Ap. 1:  How one knows the basic human goods
Ap. 2:  Further clarification of the first moral principle
Ap. 3:  Natural law, the magisterium, and dissenting theologians

Chapter 8: The Modes of Responsibility Which Specify the First Principle

Qu. A:  What is the first mode of responsibility?
Qu. B:  What is the second mode of responsibility?
Qu. C:  What is the third mode of responsibility?
Qu. D:  What is the fourth mode of responsibility?
Qu. E:  What is the fifth mode of responsibility?
Qu. F:  What is the sixth mode of responsibility?
Qu. G:  What is the seventh mode of responsibility?
Qu. H:  What is the eighth mode of responsibility?
Qu. I:  How do the eight modes of responsibility shape the life of a good person toward integral human fulfillment?


Chapter 9: The Voluntary: What Moral Norms Bear Upon

Qu. A:  Why is it necessary to study various sorts of voluntariness?
Qu. B:  Which sorts of voluntariness are presupposed by choice?
Qu. C:  How are choices related to what one chooses?
Qu. D:  How are choices related to human goods?
Qu. E:  What are the special characteristics of commitments?
Qu. F:  What is the difference between the voluntariness in choosing and in accepting foreseen consequences distinct from what is chosen?
Qu. G:  What varieties of voluntariness presuppose choice but are distinct from any act of choice?

Ap. 1:  Why human acts must be described so precisely
Ap. 2:  The moral significance of spontaneous willing
Ap. 3:  The voluntary in cause

Chapter 10: From Modes of Responsibility to Moral Norms

Qu. A:  Do all the modes of responsibility have normative force in the same way?
Qu. B:  How are specific moral norms derived from the modes of responsibility?
Qu. C:  Why are some specific moral norms absolute and others nonabsolute?
Qu. D:  Is the method of deriving specific moral norms adequate for conclusive criticism of every judgment of conscience?
Qu. E:  How are rights and duties derived from the modes of responsibility?
Qu. F:  Are communities governed by moral norms other than those which govern individuals?

Ap. 1:  St. Thomas on the nonabsoluteness of norms
Ap. 2:  Limitations of the language of rights
Ap. 3:  The notion of the “common good”

Chapter 11: The Moral Authority of Law

Qu. A:  What is meant by “authority”?
Qu. B:  How can people be morally obliged to act on decisions they do not participate in making?
Qu. C:  What is the basis of one’s moral obligation to obey divine precepts?
Qu. D:  What distinctions among the laws of civil societies are necessary for moral reflection?
Qu. E:  To what extent does one have a moral obligation to obey human laws which are purely regulative?
Qu. F:  What is the difference between the Church’s moral teaching and her law?
Qu. G:  To what extent do Catholics have a moral obligation to obey the Church’s law?


Chapter 12: Moral Judgment in Problematic Situations

Qu. A:  What should be the objective of reflection by those with doubts of conscience?
Qu. B:  How can one resolve doubts of conscience which arise because of uncertainty about relevant facts?
Qu. C:  How can one resolve doubts of conscience which arise because of uncertainty about relevant norms?
Qu. D:  How is the position taken in the preceding question related to probabilism?
Qu. E:  How can one resolve a doubt of conscience which arises from the appearance of conflicting responsibilities?
Qu. F:  How can one resolve a doubt of conscience which arises when one seems obliged to do an act of a kind which is always wrong?
Qu. G:  How can one resolve a doubt of conscience concerning the permissibility of cooperating with someone who is doing something wrong?

Ap. 1:  Probabilism considered in its context
Ap. 2:  Legalism, dissent, and the current abuses of probabilism
Ap. 3:  The principle of double effect

Chapter 13: What Sin Is and What It Is Not

Qu. A:  What does Scripture say about sin?
Qu. B:  What is sin?
Qu. C:  In what sense is sin an offense against God?
Qu. D:  How can a person choose to do what is morally evil?
Qu. E:  In what sense does sin extend beyond individual sinners?
Qu. F:  How do unbelievers try to account for sin?
Qu. G:  How should Christians evaluate deterministic accounts of sin?

Ap. 1:  Misunderstandings of sin to be avoided
Ap. 2:  Emphases on self and law to be avoided

Chapter 14: Sin of Adam and Sins of Men and Women

Qu. A:  For what aspects of the human condition does original sin account?
Qu. B:  What does the Church teach about original sin?
Qu. C:  Are current attempts to revise the Church’s teaching defensible?
Qu. D:  Does the theory of evolution present a serious difficulty for the doctrine of original sin?
Qu. E:  What does faith teach about the initial human condition?
Qu. F:  How might the first humans have sinned?
Qu. G:  What were the consequences of the first sin?
Qu. H:  How could death be a consequence of sin?
Qu. I:  How can those who come after the first humans inherit original sin?

Ap. 1:  St. Paul and Trent on original sin
Ap. 2:  Responses to some objections

Chapter 15: Distinctions among Sins; Sins of Thought

Qu. A:  Are all sins equally serious?
Qu. B:  What are the theological sources of the distinction between mortal and venial sin?
Qu. C:  What is a mortal sin?
Qu. D:  How can an individual become guilty of a mortal sin by involvement in a group which acts in a seriously wrong way?
Qu. E:  How important to Christian morality are sins of thought?
Qu. F:  At what point does mortal sin begin in sins of thought?
Qu. G:  What are the most common kinds of sins of thought?

Ap. 1:  Mortal sin and the modes of voluntariness
Ap. 2:  The distinction of sins according to species and number

Chapter 16: The Distinction between Grave and Light Matter

Qu. A:  What problem is raised by the distinction between grave and light matter?
Qu. B:  What are the current theories of fundamental option?
Qu. C:  How do current theories of fundamental option try to account for the distinction between grave and light matter?
Qu. D:  Why do such theories fail to account for the distinction between grave and light matter?
Qu. E:  What other reasons tell against current theories of fundamental option?
Qu. F:  How does St. Thomas explain the distinction between grave and light matter?
Qu. G:  How can some kinds of morally evil acts be compatible with charity?

Ap. 1:  Flick and Alszeghy on fundamental commitment
Ap. 2:  Arguments for fundamental freedom

Chapter 17: Sufficient Reflection; Sins of Weakness

Qu. A:  What is needed for sufficient reflection?
Qu. B:  How can the will be weakened by strong emotion?
Qu. C:  What kinds of sins of weakness are there?
Qu. D:  What three conditions define quasi-compulsive sin of weakness?
Qu. E:  Are all sins of weakness which meet the usual conditions for mortal sin in fact mortal sins?
Qu. F:  Can the quasi-compulsive sinner through weakness simply stop sinning?

Ap. 1:  Degrees of awareness in sufficient reflection
Ap. 2:  The gravity of quasi-compulsive sins of weakness

Chapter 18: The Way of Sin to Death

Qu. A:  What is imperfection?
Qu. B:  What are the sources of temptation?
Qu. C:  How do venial sins lead to mortal sins?
Qu. D:  What are the seven capital sins?
Qu. E:  How does persistence in mortal sin lead to final impenitence?
Qu. F:  Is there a final option at the moment of death?
Qu. G:  Do impenitent sinners end in hell?
Qu. H:  In what does hell consist?
Qu. I:  Does God cause anyone to go to hell?

Ap. 1:  The reality and limited role of the Devil
Ap. 2:  Covetousness and pride as roots of all sin

Chapter 19: Fulfillment in Jesus and Human Fulfillment

Qu. A:  What is the relationship between human fulfillment and God’s purpose in creating?
Qu. B:  How is the fullness of the Lord Jesus related to God’s purpose in creating?
Qu. C:  How can human persons be united with Jesus in order to find fulfillment in him?
Qu. D:  What is the perfection of our sharing in the divine life of Jesus?
Qu. E:  What is the perfection of our bodily union with Jesus?
Qu. F:  What is the perfection of our cooperation with the human acts of Jesus?
Qu. G:  How does the human contribution to the fullness of Jesus constitute a gift to God?
Qu. H:  How is the task of Christian life related to the fullness of Jesus?

Ap.:  Questions about bodily unity with Jesus and resurrection

Chapter 20: The Relationship between God and Sinful Humankind

Qu. A:  What is divine revelation?
Qu. B:  What is it to have faith in a human person?
Qu. C:  What is it to have faith in God?
Qu. D:  How does a person make an act of faith as a personal commitment?
Qu. E:  In what sense is the act of faith a gift of God?
Qu. F:  How does human sin affect the relationship of revelation and faith?
Qu. G:  Why does God make humans cooperators in his redemptive work?

Ap. 1:  The conditions for sound interpretation in Catholic theology
Ap. 2:  The unalterability of the truths of Catholic faith

Chapter 21: God’s Redemptive Work: Covenant and Incarnation

Qu. A:  What are the constant characteristics of God’s redeeming work?
Qu. B:  How is the covenant relationship to be understood?
Qu. C:  How does the covenant relationship deepen and transform morality?
Qu. D:  How does the new covenant perfect the old?
Qu. E:  How are the human and the divine united in Jesus?
Qu. F:  How are the divine and human aspects of Jesus’ actions related?

Ap. 1:  How the Incarnation reveals the personal life of God
Ap. 2:  The personal unity of the life of the Word Incarnate

Chapter 22: God’s Redemptive Work in Jesus’ Human Life

Qu. A:  Does Jesus have a fundamental option?
Qu. B:  What is Jesus’ basic commitment?
Qu. C:  What is Jesus’ personal vocation?
Qu. D:  By what types of acts does Jesus carry out his personal vocation?
Qu. E:  What is the main issue in Jesus’ conflict with the leaders?
Qu. F:  How does it come about that Jesus freely accepts death?
Qu. G:  How is Jesus’ acceptance of death redemptive?

Ap. 1:  The use of the Gospels as sources
Ap. 2:  Further aspects and other theories of redemption

Chapter 23: God’s Redemptive Work in the Lives of Christians

Qu. A:  How do fallen men and women enter into Jesus’ redemptive act by making faith in him their fundamental option?
Qu. B:  How are Christians united with Jesus’ redemptive act in the Mass?
Qu. C:  What does it mean to follow the way of the Lord Jesus?
Qu. D:  How do Christians carry out their common vocation to follow Jesus?
Qu. E:  Why does every Christian have a unique personal vocation?
Qu. F:  Why should Christians follow the same moral standards in carrying out their different personal vocations?
Qu. G:  Why must Catholics conform their consciences to the teaching of the Church?

Ap. 1:  The liturgical character of Christian moral life
Ap. 2:  The human authenticity of the faithful Catholic conscience

Chapter 24: Christians: Human Children of God

Qu. A:  What is human love?
Qu. B:  What is the relationship between the Trinitarian reality of God and his self-communication to created persons?
Qu. C:  How intimate a communion does God establish with us?
Qu. D:  How does the act of faith link the Christian as a human person with his or her share in the divine nature?
Qu. E:  Can divine goodness and human goods be alternatives for choice?
Qu. F:  How are the divine and the human united in the Christian?

Ap. 1:  The Trinity of divine persons as love
Ap. 2:  The mystery of the Christian’s share in divine life
Ap. 3:  Other accounts of Christian love

Chapter 25: Christian Love as the Principle of Christian Life

Qu. A:  Is Christian love a human act?
Qu. B:  Why does Christian love require moral goodness?
Qu. C:  Are the moral requirements of Christian love expressed by the commands to love God and neighbor?
Qu. D:  What does Christian love add to the love commands of the Old Testament?
Qu. E:  Are there specific norms knowable only by faith whose fulfillment is strictly required by Christian love?
Qu. F:  Must the modes of responsibility be transformed so that all one does might contribute to a suitable response to God’s gift of Christian love?
Qu. G:  Does the new law surpass the old law by giving Christians something besides better guidance for living?
Qu. H:  In what senses can Christian love be called “grace”?

Ap. 1:  The Christian lives by the Spirit
Ap. 2:  The humanity of Jesus and the natural law
Ap. 3:  Self-affirmation, self-denial, and charity
Ap. 4:  Charity as one of three theological virtues

Chapter 26: Modes of Christian Response

Qu. A:  How are the modes of Christian response related to the Beatitudes?
Qu. B:  How are the modes of Christian response related to the Christian moral virtues?
Qu. C:  How are the modes of Christian response related to the gifts of the Holy Spirit?
Qu. D:  What mode of Christian response corresponds to the first Beatitude: “Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven” (Mt 5.3)?
Qu. E:  What mode of Christian response corresponds to the second (or third) Beatitude: “Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth” (Mt 5.5)?
Qu. F:  What mode of Christian response corresponds to the third (or second) Beatitude: “Blessed are those who mourn, for they shall be comforted” (Mt 5.4)?
Qu. G:  What mode of Christian response corresponds to the fourth Beatitude: “Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they shall be satisfied” (Mt 5.6)?
Qu. H:  What mode of Christian response corresponds to the fifth Beatitude: “Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy” (Mt 5.7)?
Qu. I:  What mode of Christian response corresponds to the sixth Beatitude: “Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God” (Mt 5.8)?
Qu. J:  What mode of Christian response corresponds to the seventh Beatitude: “Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called sons of God” (Mt 5.9)?
Qu. K:  What mode of Christian response corresponds to the eighth Beatitude: “Blessed are those who are persecuted for righteousness’ sake, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven” (Mt 5.10)?

Ap.:  The upright who have not heard the gospel

Chapter 27: Life Formed by the Modes of Christian Response

Qu. A:  What is the underlying principle which unifies the modes of Christian response?
Qu. B:  How do the modes of Christian response shape the life of each Christian following Jesus?
Qu. C:  How do the Christian modes of response lead to specific Christian norms?
Qu. D:  How does each Christian’s conscience function in forming his or her unique life?
Qu. E:  Does the Christian conscience demand perfection?
Qu. F:  To what extent are Christians obliged to forgo their rights?
Qu. G:  How can Christian norms require preference for certain persons?
Qu. H:  How can a conscientious Christian make any vocational commitment other than to follow the counsels of perfection?

Ap. 1:  Jesus as Christian moral principle: unique but intelligible
Ap. 2:  Life according to the counsels of perfection
Ap. 3:  The present theology and received Catholic teaching

Chapter 28: The Practicability of Christian Morality

Qu. A:  In what sense do the Christian modes of response articulate ideals?
Qu. B:  Is it possible to fulfill the norms of Christian morality?
Qu. C:  Does the fulfillment of the norms of Christian morality involve a process of growth toward perfection?
Qu. D:  Why is growth toward Christian perfection often stunted?
Qu. E:  How does commitment to one’s personal vocation promote growth toward perfection?
Qu. F:  How can the requirement that Christians live according to the modes of Christian response escape rigorism?
Qu. G:  Why is hope indispensable to living a Christian life?

Ap.:  Christian morality and social responsibility

Chapter 29: Prayer: The Fundamental Category of Christian Action

Qu. A:  What is prayer?
Qu. B:  Why is prayer necessary?
Qu. C:  How does the Christian’s life of prayer depend on the Holy Spirit?
Qu. D:  What characteristics should mark Christian prayer?
Qu. E:  Are prayers always answered?
Qu. F:  Why should liturgical prayer be the center of each Christian’s prayer life?
Qu. G:  What is the role of sacramentals and devotions in Christian life?
Qu. H:  Why is personal prayer necessary in addition to liturgical prayer?

Ap. 1:  The experience of communion with the Spirit
Ap. 2:  Sacred Scripture in the liturgy
Ap. 3:  Not every Christian is called to contemplative prayer

Chapter 30: Sacraments in General and Baptism

Qu. A:  How are the sacraments related to God’s redemptive work in Jesus and in Christians?
Qu. B:  Why are the sacraments Christian moral principles?
Qu. C:  What is the relationship between the sacraments as acts and as signs?
Qu. D:  What is God’s part in sacramental cooperation?
Qu. E:  What is the human action of our glorified Lord in the sacraments?
Qu. F:  What is the Church’s role in the sacraments?
Qu. G:  What is the recipient’s role in sacramental cooperation?
Qu. H:  Why is baptism the basic sacrament?
Qu. I:  What are the implications of baptism for Christian moral life?

Ap. 1:  The symbolic aspect of the sacraments
Ap. 2:  The one Church and those who do not hear the gospel

Chapter 31: Confirmation, the Apostolate, and Personal Vocation

Qu. A:  How is confirmation a principle of Christian life?
Qu. B:  In what sense is confirmation the sacrament of the apostolate?
Qu. C:  How are confirmation, apostolate, and personal vocation related to one another?
Qu. D:  Why is strength the special grace of the sacrament of confirmation?
Qu. E:  How can one discern one’s personal vocation?
Qu. F:  What sorts of prayer are appropriate to Christian life as apostolate?
Qu. G:  What is the role of friendship with Mary and the other saints in the apostolic life of every Christian?

Ap. 1:  The meaning of confirmation indicated in the new rite
Ap. 2:  Scriptural indications about the sacrament of confirmation

Chapter 32: Penance, Anointing, and the Life of Self‑Denial

Qu. A:  Why is the sacrament of penance necessary?
Qu. B:  What is the contrition required for the sacrament of penance?
Qu. C:  What does it mean to do penance for sin?
Qu. D:  How can the sacrament of penance be a principle of the whole of a Christian’s life?
Qu. E:  How does avoiding the occasions of sin contribute to the penitential ordering of Christian life?
Qu. F:  How does reparation for sin contribute to the penitential ordering of Christian life?
Qu. G:  What are the primary forms of penance?
Qu. H:  How does the sacrament of anointing of the sick complete penance?

Ap. 1:  The distinction between restitution and penance
Ap. 2:  Penance, indulgences, purgatory, and temporal punishment

Chapter 33: Eucharistic Life as Fulfillment in the Lord Jesus

Qu. A:  How is the Eucharist both complex and simple?
Qu. B:  How is sharing in the Eucharist sharing in the sacrifice of Jesus?
Qu. C:  How is the Eucharist spiritual food for Christians?
Qu. D:  How does the Eucharist transform Christian moral life?
Qu. E:  How is the Eucharist a pledge of glory?
Qu. F:  How does the Eucharist constitute the Church?
Qu. G:  How does the Liturgy of the Hours extend the Eucharist throughout the day?
Qu. H:  How does the sacrament of matrimony extend the Eucharist into the basic personal relationships of most Christians?

Ap.:  The bodily presence of Jesus in the Eucharist

Chapter 34: Christian Life Animated with Hope of Everlasting Life

Qu. A:  What difficulties are generated by the view that Christian life in this world is only a means to be used to reach heaven?
Qu. B:  What are the implications of the view that human fulfillment will be found exclusively in this world?
Qu. C:  What are the implications of the view that heaven will inevitably follow this life, but that the positive meaning of this life is found entirely within it?
Qu. D:  How does the doctrine of fulfillment in the Lord Jesus make clear the incompleteness of the preceding views?
Qu. E:  How is Christian life in this age both continuous with and discontinuous from everlasting life?
Qu. F:  Why is the living of Christian life in this age necessary for the realization of God’s salvific purpose?
Qu. G:  What attitude should Christians have toward the realization of human goods in this life?

Ap. 1:  Christian humanism and cultural progress in history
Ap. 2:  Fleshly reality lasts and its givenness is transcended

Chapter 35: The Truth of Christ Lives in His Church

Qu. A:  What is the origin of the infallibility of the Church?
Qu. B:  What in Scripture must be accepted as certainly true?
Qu. C:  What is meant by the “magisterium” of the Church?
Qu. D:  Under what conditions, apart from solemn definitions, does the Church teach infallibly?
Qu. E:  Does the Church infallibly teach some absolute moral norms?
Qu. F:  Why must one give religious assent to teachings not infallibly proposed?
Qu. G:  What are the limits of the obligation of religious assent?

Ap. 1:  The apostle and the handing on of Christian revelation
Ap. 2:  A critique of some views on infallibility in general
Ap. 3:  A critique of some views on infallibility in morals
Ap. 4:  Moral teaching in the New Testament

Chapter 36: A Critical Examination of Radical Theological Dissent

Qu. A:  Does the Church’s teaching itself provide some justification for radical theological dissent?
Qu. B:  Did those who engaged in radical theological dissent carefully consider the possible infallibility of the norms they denied?
Qu. C:  What other grounds were proposed to support the legitimacy of radical theological dissent?
Qu. D:  How did dissenting theologians try to buttress their claim to an authority superior to that of the magisterium?
Qu. E:  Could morality be considered outside the field of authority proper to the magisterium?
Qu. F:  Could radical theological dissent be construed as mere reformulation of traditional moral teaching?
Qu. G:  Could radical theological dissent be construed as legitimate doctrinal development in the moral domain?
Qu. H:  Why did some wish to change Catholic teaching?

Ap. 1:  Some examples of alleged errors in Catholic teaching
Ap. 2:  Authentic development in moral teaching
Ap. 3:  How academic theology became secularized
Ap. 4:  Causes of the successes of theological dissent
Ap. 5:  An afterword on pastoral responsibility and solidarity